Did you know you don’t have to dread the early morning cold? Imagine waking up and stepping onto a warm floor or enjoying heated tile under your feet while you shower? By choosing the best radiant floor heater for your needs, you can enjoy this, and much more.
We have gathered everything you need to know, including radiant floor heater reviews, to help you chose the ideal option for your home and your needs. There is quite a variety available, and plenty to learn before you start your installation, so let’s get started.
What is Radiant Floor Heating?
Before having such a system installed, you must first know how radiant floor heating works. It is installed under your floors and powered by either electricity or water. As we have focused on electric radiant floor heating systems, we will discuss those in more detail.
Radiant floor heating systems use plastic mats that have heating coils within them that are warmed by electricity. These heated elements are similar to those you have in your electric stove. The resistance wires are nichrome or copper and are wrapped in a water-resistant polymer. They have high electrical resistance, making them perfect for producing heat.
Throughout the entire mat, these wires are zigzagged and connected to a power outlet. Imagine the heating mat as a large, rolled up, electric blanket, and you get the idea. There are different sized mats, and usually, they can be cut to form them to space. However, don’t ever cut the heating coils.
This type of heating is most suitable for ceramic floor tile, but it applies to a variety of floor types. It is not recommended to apply with a carpeted floor as it doesn’t conduct heat very well, so the right application is critical for effectiveness. You can use two types of padding if you do add under carpeting to get results, ribbed, and slab.
Generally, RFH (radiant floor heating) is used for individual rooms. Thus, it is usually controlled through a single thermostat or switch. It takes about 30 minutes to an hour to heat the floor and space as the coils are installed between the floor covering and subfloor. If using a thermostat, you can set a timer to turn on the heating about an hour before getting out of bed or getting in the shower, so it is nice and warm.
Who Needs a Radiant Floor Heating System?
Although these types of heating systems are ideal for anyone, some people would benefit a lot more than others from such an installation. Of course, if you live in an area that experiences colder winters and getting out of bed to step on the cold floor is frightful, this is the perfect installation for you.
This type of installation is also ideal for families with young children. They are suitable for playrooms where kids enjoy sitting on the floor and bedrooms, so your feet don’t get chilly. The most common room for installation, though, is in the bathroom. If your bathroom is cold, this type of application will make taking a shower much more pleasant. Step directly on the warm tiles and enjoy the perfect ambient temperature.
Why Do You Need Radiant Floor Heating?
As with everything else, there are advantages and disadvantages. Here are the pros and cons of radiant floor heating that you need to consider before installation.
Advantages of Radiant Floor Heating
Many benefits make the installation of radiant floor heating costs well worth it.
This type of heating offers efficient and consistent warmth. For a traditional radiator to work, it requires to reach temperatures as high as 167 degrees Fahrenheit. For floor heating, only 84 degrees Fahrenheit is necessary to get the floor and room warm. Although this does depend significantly on the floor finish. Regardless, they require a lot less energy, thus reducing your energy bills substantially.
If you use a radiator, you know the heat only reaches the person closest to it and generally leave cold spots. By installing a radiant floor heating system, you get results throughout the room evenly. So it heats faster, uses up less energy, and doesn’t leave cold spots if installed correctly. Not to mention saving 15% on heating as opposed to traditional options.
Simple to use
Although installation can be tiring, once installed, it is super easy to use. There is no maintenance involved, and generally, you get long-term guarantees with the systems. Using a quality thermostat, all you have to worry about is programming when you want to increase the temperature, so it is ready when you are.
Takes up virtually no space
There is no worrying about where to put the heater. Even with modern technology, they take up space. With heated floors, you have the freedom to enjoy your space without ugly radiators on the walls.
Suitable for nearly all floor coverings
Although it may not be ideal for carpet and wood floors, there are solutions to make it work. With this type of heating, you can install any kind of flooring without worrying it can affect your heating results. It is ideal for tile and stone floors but can work just as good under laminate, wood, and carpeted flooring as well with the right installation.
Combines comfort with safety
There are no worries about children around hot surfaces or sharp edges of radiators. The heating is safely under the floor and never gets too hot or dangerous. Another fantastic benefit is that it doesn’t affect the air quality of the room, as most radiant heaters do. The air is oxygen-rich and fresh, while the temperature is perfect for comfort as it allows air circulation.
The only thing that floor heating doesn’t help with is if the air quality is already bad in the room, especially from smokers. Consider using one of our reviewed air purifiers for smoke to find the ideal purifier to improve air quality.
Surprisingly easy to install
Of course, it needs to be installed under the floor. So you already have to be in the process of building or renovations. However, if you are already there installation is super easy. It’s a simple DIY project for anyone, especially if you choose to purchase a heating mat that already has the wires pre-spaced. Just roll out and follow the simple instructions, and you’re set.
Disadvantages of Radiant Floor Heating
As with all else, there are drawbacks that you need to consider before choosing this form of heating your floors and home.
Cost of installation
By adding radiant floor heating, your renovation may jump by $10 to $20 per square foot. Also, even though it’s a great DIY project, we do recommend you contact a qualified electrician to do the connecting to the power supply. You want everything to be perfect because the moment you put the flooring down, there is no turning back without tearing it apart again.
The time required for installation
Understandably, as it is below the floor, it will take some time. Also, for installation self-leveling compound will be necessary to ensure your floor will be even. This adds to the time factor as it must dry completely before flooring can be added on top. Still, in most cases, this type of heating is installed during overall renovations or new builds, so generally, it’s expected for it to take time.
Increase the height of the floor
By installing radiant floor heating, you will increase your floor height by about ½ an inch. This depends significantly on the system you choose, but with the addition of insulation boards for added efficiency and the leveling compound, expect a considerable difference. Keep this in mind when shopping for the ideal system as some are thinner than others.
There is a variety of heating options available for your home, and if radiant floor heating isn’t ideal for you to consider checking out the rest of our Homeclimate product reviews and guides for products about achieving the perfect home temperature.
Best Radiant Floor Heaters Comparison Chart
Warming Systems 15 sq. ft. Electric Radiant Floor Heater
|View On Amazon|
Seal Radiant Floor Heating Mat
|View On Amazon|
Warming Systems Electric Radiant Floor Heating System
|View On Amazon|
Happybuy Electric Radiant Floor Heating Mat
|View On Amazon|
HeatTech Mat Kit
|View On Amazon|
Heatizon Electric Radiant Floor Heating System
|View On Amazon|
6 Best Radiant Floor Heaters – Top Picks
Below we’ve put together our collection of the leading electric radiant floor heater options. Keep in mind these are in no particular order, so look over each carefully.
1. Warming Systems 15 sq. ft. Electric Radiant Floor Heater
This is a 15 square foot mat that comes with a thermostat and install monitor. It is 20” wide and 9” long mesh that can be cut to fit the space you need to warm. Keep in mind not to cut the heating elements though. It works on 120 volts and 1.5 Amps and outputs 12 watts per square feet. It is UL listed for Canada and the US, making it an ultra-safe choice for installation.
This floor heating mat is made of high-quality materials and includes a single cold lead, has zero EMF, and comes with a 25-year warranty. This makes it ideal for installation in any room in the house. It comes with a thermostat and the monitor is included.
The thermostat is programmable and is explicitly designed to work with underfloor heating systems. It features two sensors for more accurate temperature control and added energy saving. It offers a pre-programmed 7-day schedule that you can easily adjust and switch between Fahrenheit and Celsius.
- The floor heater comes with a 25-year manufacturer’s warranty.
- The thermostat and monitor are included.
- It is UL listed for the US and Canada.
- The installation instructions aren’t clear.
- There may be problems with programming the thermostat, and it not working improperly.
- This type of heating system must be embedded in polymer modified cement mortar before flooring can be installed.
2. Seal Radiant Floor Heating Mat
What sets this mat apart from the rest is its ultra-thin cable and advanced fluoropolymer insulation, better known as Teflon. It features twin conductors, and each braid is fully armored. This product is suitable for many installations and can reach maximum temperatures of 85 degrees Fahrenheit with a minimal installation temperature of 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
If this particular size is either too big or too small, you can choose from 10 different size options as well. The 50 square foot mat is 612 watts and offers 24 ohms maximum. It is 19.7 inches wide and 32.58 feet long. Manufactured of the highest quality materials, the 1/8″ cable can safely be heated and offers multiple configurations.
The heating mat features a 10-foot cold lead to reduce electromagnetic fields and is UL listed for the US and Canada. It complies with all electrical safety standards and is 100% safe when installed properly.
- There are many size options available.
- Complies with US and Canada UL standards.
- Made of high-quality materials.
- No thermostat or install monitor included.
- The product is relatively new, so there is little feedback.
- Cannot install it directly over plywood as it must be embedded in self-leveling compound and mortar.
3. Warming Systems Electric Radiant Floor Heating System
This product is slightly different than the rest. Rather than the heating coil being installed in a mesh mat, it is rolled on its own. This allows you a lot more freedom for odd-sized rooms or ones with many fixtures and obstacles that don’t require heating underneath them.
This heating cable consists of a twisted pair of wires to ensure zero EMF, a single cold lead, and is ultra-thin at only 1/8″. Even though not embedded in a mat, the cable must be placed 3 inches apart across the area for optimal results. In the package, you will receive the heating cable, plastic cable guides, thermostat, and installation monitor.
The product is UL listed for the USA and Canada and is very easy to install using the plastic cable guides, while the thermostat ensures the installation is energy efficient. The thermostat is programmable and features two sensors for controlling the ambient temperature and floor temperature. It also features a backlit display, a 7-day pre-installed schedule, and high tech precision.
The best part is that this product comes with a “Life of the floor warranty”. It has a maximum temperature of 104 degrees Fahrenheit and features 200 linear feet of wire.
- This product is ideal for odd-shaped rooms or ones that have many obstacles.
- It comes with a “Life of the floor warranty.”
- Less expensive than similar products and mats.
- The cable is stiffer than other similar products.
- There aren’t enough guides provided to last the full installation of the whole cable.
- The thermostat included is very difficult to program.
4. Happybuy Electric Radiant Floor Heating Mat
This radiant floor heating mat works on 100 to 120 volts with an output of 12 watts per square foot. It features a minimum bending radius of 30 mm with a minimum cable spacing of 8 cm. It comes with a thermostat and installation alarm, so you are ready to install when you receive it.
The mat is processed with aluminum cable ground connection and PEP insulation with PVC protective cover to assure safe use. It has also passed RoHS, VDE, CE, and UL testing. On the back of the mesh, it has self-adhesives to keep it in place for easier installation. It is the ideal installation for vinyl, engineered wood, laminate, marble, granite, porcelain, and ceramic floor covers.
The max exposure temperature for the unit is 90 degrees Celsius, with a minimum installation temperature of 5 degrees Celsius. The thermostat has an over and low-temperature protection and displays time, the temperature in the room, humidity, and the floor temperature. It also has an added lock feature. It also has manual control and preset functions that allow you to set 6 different working periods.
- The product comes with a thermostat and a monitor.
- The thermostat offers numerous options, including humidity monitoring of the room.
- It meets or passes UL, VDE, CE, and RoHS tests.
- The thermostat comes in a non-standard box, which makes it impossible to install in existing utility boxes.
5. HeatTech Mat Kit
With 13 sizes available, you can find one most suitable for your space. With an adhesive back for fast and easy installation, this 20″ by 6.11-foot long mat is a great choice. It requires 120 volts and outputs 12 watts. It comes with a Honeywell/Aube TH115-AF-120S thermostat and features a 1/8″ thick cable ending in a 10-foot cold lead.
The heating coil is spaced 3″ apart, and you can easily combine different sized mats up to 150 square feet on a single thermostat to better fit your space. The mesh can easily be cut to take corners or go around obstacles, as long as you don’t cut the heating coil. The heating mat comes with a 25-year warranty and is UL listed for the US and Canada.
- The mat comes with a thermostat.
- Can combine different sized mats up to 150 square feet on the thermostat.
- The mat is UL listed for the USA and Canada.
- You may a difficult time programming the thermostat.
6. Heatizon Electric Radiant Floor Heating System
If the 100 square foot floor heating system is too big for the space you want to heat, there are 13 other size options available. The 100 square foot mat is 20 inches wide and 61 feet long and includes GFCI 7 day programmable thermostat. It works on 120 volts, 100 watts, and has a 15-foot cold cable with a 12 watt per square foot output.
This product is ideal for installing in wet locations and is only 1/8″ thick. It is easy to attach with self-adhesive back and is ETL listed for the US and Canada. If you are located outside the US, you can choose to purchase the 240-volt option.
The included thermostat offers 4 event programming and has a very user-friendly interface. It comes pre-programmed and is multi-voltage (120V/208V/240V). Ther unit provides auto, manual, and comfort modes that are backed by two sensors, one for the floor and one in the thermostat. It has a minimum temperature of 41 degrees Fahrenheit and a maximum of 104 degrees Fahrenheit.
- Also available for 240V installations.
- It comes with a programmable thermostat with two sensors.
- ETL listed for the US and Canada.
- Although no length of warranty information was found, if you do want it to be honored, the installation must be done by a certified professional.
- It takes a long time to warm up.
Types of Radiant Floor Heating Systems
Above we offered reviews of electric floor heating systems. However, there are more options available for radiant heating if you feel that they may not be the perfect fit.
Air Radiant Floor Heating
These types of installations aren’t ideal for home installations as air isn’t known for holding heat. Although this type of application is rare, it may be applied in combination with solar air heating systems. This option isn’t a popular one, but certainly available for anyone interested in considering it.
Electric Radiant Floor Heating
This type of heating is what we recommend the most and have provided several reviews of popular products on the market. This form of heating features mats or rolls of heat coils that are installed under the floor.
They are very cost-effective if installed properly with a thick thermal mass to retain heat. You can then heat the floor at off-peak hours when electricity is lowest, increasing room temperature as well. This form of heating is a typical installation during renovations or new builds, but also consider combining it with another primary source for warming the home as it is mainly for adding comfort.
Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating
This is one of the most popular forms of heating. They heat by pumping water from a boiler through inlaid tubing under the floor. This form of heating can be controlled through a thermostat in a single room or throughout the home. This type of heating is cost-effective in the long run, but a significant investment for installation.
Where to Install?
As mentioned above, radiant heating is ideal for bathrooms. The materials used in flooring for bathrooms make radiant heating much more effective. Tile and ceramic tile can be very cold to bare feet, even in the summers. The same reason why this material stays cold is why it is also fantastic for underfloor heating.
Another popular place for underfloor heating is entries, foyers, and mudrooms. They are also commonly covered with the ideal material for underfloor heating, tile. Installation in these areas offers a lovely welcome, dries and warms shoes before going out, and allows you to take your shoes off onto a heated tile.
Heating can be installed in bedrooms, living rooms, and playrooms, as well. It can easily be installed under wood or carpet with the right type of materials. Keep in mind, though, it may add to your power bill as it will require more energy to give results.
What is most important is that it will not bring up dust as with radiators. If you’ve recently completed renovations and installed your new underfloor heating system, we recommend you check out our home air quality test kit reviews. They will help you make sure there are no leftover residues and chemical fumes that can affect the quality of the air you and your family breathe.
How Not to Install an Electric Radiant Floor Heating System
As easy as it is to install, there are some things to consider before installing heated floors. Read below to find out the most common mistakes made while installing radiant heating.
Not using the right flooring material
You can install radiant floor heating to just about any type of flooring. However, to get the right results, only several are ideal. Keep in mind that if you install vinyl, wood, or laminate flooring over the underfloor heating, they can be discolored and distorted by this type of heating method if you don’t use the right materials.
Also, keep in mind that not all materials transfer heat efficiently, such as wood floors and carpets. They will require more energy to get the desired results, making it more expensive the warm the area. Some materials can be used under the floors to improve this, but there will always be a difference.
The ideal choice is stone, porcelain, and ceramic flooring. They conduct heat well and allow it to spread over the floor evenly and radiate into the room better. The thicker the tiles are, the longer the temperature will be maintained.
Not using enough scree or tile adhesive
The tile should be installed over a flat surface. If it is installed over an uneven surface, the flooring can crack when pressure is applied.
If installing tile over the heating system, the surface must be even to prevent cracking in the future. The thin pads of electric radiant heating are slim and easily unrolled beneath the tile. Still, it is essential you even the surface and uses enough tile adhesive that there are no points of pressure left under the flooring. If the area doesn’t have enough material, leaving air pockets, over time, the tiles may crack.
Overlooking the added floor height when installing underfloor heating
Although the added floor height may not be significant, it can be a deal-breaker for some. If you are doing a whole floor reinstallation, there shouldn’t be serious problems losing an inch or two, but if you are redoing just a part of the floor, it may lead to adding a step to compensate for the added height. It is recommended you consider floor heating for an entire room, or if applying it only to an area to add extra material to even out the floor.
Spreading the heating mat over a space larger than it is designed for
There are two options for application, a roll of heating wires or mats. Mats can be cut to round corners and fit a room better, but don’t overdo it and space the coils too much. With more freedom of using a roll of heating coils, you may also overlook the importance of keeping the proper spacing between the heating coils. If you do so, you can lose heat and have cold spots on the floor.
Of course, keep in mind that generally, it is good to have no less than 3″ spacing between coils. This can cause increased heating costs and prices for the installation.
Relying on underfloor heating as the sole heating source
If you choose to use underfloor heating for large areas, it can get expensive. It is ideal for warming feel and overall ambiance of a space, but to maintain the temperature in the home, we recommend you have an alternative heating method. It provides comfort and an efficient form of heating for when the weather is reasonable, but if temperatures drop too much, an additional heating method will be more productive.
Installing Underfloor Radiant Heating Systems
Although it is simple enough to do it yourself, we recommend you either hire a contractor or at least an electrician for the electrical connections. If you do choose to do the installation yourself, we’ve broken it down into nine easy steps.
Make a floorplan of fixtures and where the heating will be
Before you begin any type of home renovation, it is essential to have a floor plan. You can either do it yourself or have a professional do it, but make sure you don’t overlook every aspect. This includes air vents, cabinets, islands, toilets, or other permanent fixtures that you don’t need heat under. Make precise room measurements to help you calculate precisely how much material you will need.
Order your materials and tools
Once you have decided on your plan, you must determine if you want to use a mat or roll for your needs and budget. Choose a trusted manufacturer, and make sure that you order slightly less than the space you have available, because you cannot cut the coils down to size, and it is not recommended to reduce spacing to make them fit.
Make sure that you not only order the mat or roll, but also a circuit check device to ensure there isn’t a break or short in the circuit while you are installing your heating system. This is one of the biggest fears of installers because once you’ve installed the floor on top, there is no way to fix any circuit issues without tearing it up again. A circuit check will sound an alarm if there is damage to the circuits.
Test what you’ve purchased before you begin
Once you’ve received your heating system, make sure you test it with a digital ohmmeter before you start. The results of the test must be within 15% of the value that is marked on the UL label. You don’t want to install your heating system only to find out that it is faulty.
Inspect and prepare your subfloor
To prevent damage to your heating system, first inspect the subfloor for pointed objects and sharp edges such as exposed nails, stables, etc. Once you’ve done this using your plan mark where your permanent fixtures are to prevent adding a heating system where it is not needed.
Start installing your heating system
Once again, with your plan in hand, roll out the roll of mesh heating pad or rolled coil in the proper direction. With mesh pads, the cable should face down to protect it during installation. If you have a corner to round, cut the mesh, but take care not to cut the heating cable. If you need to go around an object, merely freeform the heating cable around it. Remember that some heating cables have degrees that they can be bent, so keep this in mind.
When securing, make sure the roll is straight to ensure the ideal spacing between them. Most mesh rolls come with self-adhesive on the bottom. If they do not, there is a variety of gluing options available to secure them in place.
Install the thermostat sensor
The thermostat sensor must be placed between heating cables. If you put it on top of a coil, it will give improper readings. Make sure it is glued securely or weaved between the mesh, so it doesn’t move while you complete the installation.
Test the system once again before you continue
Using your digital ohmmeter, make sure that the rolls are working correctly. This is crucial before you continue onto the next step. Also, continuously check using the Circuit Check to make sure you haven’t damaged a coil during installation.
Connect your system to the thermostat
Although you can connect the system to an on and off switch, a thermostat will help improve efficiency and give you more control. Once you’ve made sure everything is working correctly, and there are no issues, we recommend you contact a professional electrician to connect everything to a thermostat.
Add the mortar and add your choice of flooring
Once you have evened out the floor on top of the heating system and installed the mortar, it’s time to add the flooring. Before you do so, make sure that the mortar has completely dried. Add the flooring of your choice and wait for thin-set and grout to dry before trying your heating system. Consider time for curing also.
Once you have followed all of the steps above, simply enjoy your new heated floors.
Is Radiant Floor Heating Safe?
Electricity in showers can be unnerving. Having heating coils run through your floors can be as well. It is usual for you to have questions and concerns about whether such an installation is safe.
Can you get shocked by electric underfloor heating?
Getting an electric shock from underfloor heating is almost virtually impossible. The wires are completely protected from any current leaking from the heater to the user. You must choose a product that is UL approved and meets all standards of safety.
The electrical heating wires in the systems are carefully insulated to prevent any possibility of current coming out and shocking you while you shower or walk on the floor.
Is radiant floor heating suitable for people suffering from allergies?
One of the leading reasons many people choose this type of heating is that it is the ideal choice for anyone with allergies. The air quality of the room will not be affected as it would be with an air conditioner or radiator.
All in all, if you buy from a trusted manufacturer and install the system properly, there are zero safety concerns.
Frequently Asked Questions
We may have answered some of these questions above, but here is a quick breakdown.
What is the difference between electric floor heating systems and hot water heating systems?
Hydronic floor heating systems pump water through plastic tubing installed under the floor. Electric floor heating systems warm utilizing an electrical cable under the flooring. There are several differences, including installation and use costs, which must be considered before choosing which is most suitable for your family.
Underfloor heating versus central air heating. What is the difference?
Also known as forced-air heating, central air heating makes use of a furnace to distribute heat throughout the home via ducts in every room. This is one of the most popular ways to warm whole homes in the US, but it is far from cost-effective and energy-efficient. This is because a lot of heat is lost along the way by the time it reaches the area it needs to warm. It also spreads allergens throughout the home.
This is all eliminated through radiant floor heating. It is more energy-efficient as less heat is lost and radiates ambient warmth throughout a room evenly. Of course, to get these types of results, you must install radiant floor heating throughout your home, not only in the bathrooms or specific areas. The most crucial benefit is that it doesn’t blow allergens around the room.
Is it necessary to replace flooring to install underfloor heating?
Unfortunately, yes. This is why the installation of underfloor radiant heating is done during significant renovations or during the initial building of the home. You will have to remove the existing floor to install a new heating system.
Can radiant floor heating be installed under any floor type?
You shouldn’t have problems installing underfloor heating under any floor type. However, remember that different floor materials retain heat differently, thus requiring more electricity. For instance, stone, tile, and porcelain floors are ideal. You can also install heating under carpets, hardwood, and laminate floors, but be aware of the difference in results you will get.
Is electric radiant floor heating safe from electromagnetic fields (EMFs)?
EMFs exist in our everyday life through the electrical appliances we commonly use, with that in mind, there is no way for radiant floor heating to emit zero. However, if you choose a quality manufacturer and do your research well, you will get a quality floor heating system that has low EMF levels that aren’t a concern.
Can you have electric radiant floor heating as a primary heat source?
This depends significantly on where you are located and the size of the room you are heating. If your home isn’t well insulated, if windows aren’t updated, and there are large open areas, you may want to consider a secondary heating source, while floor heating will provide floor comfort. The idea of floor heating is to improve the ambient temperature in smaller rooms and make walking on the floor more enjoyable.
How much does a floor heating system cost?
This depends significantly on the size of the area you plan on heating. You can find heating systems that cost anywhere between $8 and $20 per square foot, though this varies greatly depending on the manufacturer. Don’t forget that labor and added materials are required, as well. If you choose to install on your own, you will save money, but we recommend you hire an electrician when the time comes.
How hot does the radiant heated floor get?
The idea of floor heating is to add comfort, not burn. So generally, the floor will feel neutral in temperature and will usually be around the same or less than our body temperature. You may feel a more drastic difference on days that it is unusually cold.
Different floor heaters have different max temperatures. Still, generally, the idea isn’t to burn you, but rather to provide a more comfortable floor temperature so you can enjoy walking barefoot on the floor.
If you want to enjoy the warmth under your feet when you first get out of bed or in the shower, you must find the best radiant floor heater to fit the space and your budget. With a wide variety of applications and fantastic results, underfloor heaters are a great way to make your home more comfortable.
We hope our radiant floor heater reviews and buying guide helped you get a better idea about what you will need for this kind of application during your next home renovation. They are ideal for homes that require that added warmth and comfort during the cold winter months.
Where will you install your radiant floor heating? Share your exciting home renovation ideas in the comments below!